This week’s parasha, Shelach lecha, Numbers 13:1 – 15:41, takes its name from the first words of the second verse, “send for yourself,” which concerns the meraglim (spies) that were to go into the land of Canaan to check out the place before Bnei Israel would enter in and take possession. Sending the spies into Canaan to ascertain the lay of the land, the people, the produce, and the defenses can be considered as counting the cost (see Luke 14:31-32) before taking action. Counting the cost is a valid principle, but it needs to be balanced with the expressed word of HaShem. In Exodus, even before HaShem delivered Bnei Israel, he made this promise,

“I declare that I will bring you up out of the misery of Egypt, to the land of the Canaanites, the Hittites, the Amorites, the Perizzites, the Hivites, and the Jebusites, a land flowing with milk and honey.”

Exodus 3:17

There should not have been any doubt in the minds of Bnei Israel that he would fulfill his promises. To this point in the narrative, HaShem had fulfilled everything he had promised Israel. He had delivered them from slavery and oppression, provided for their needs, and even quite visibly entered into covenant with them at Sinai, making them his am segula(treasured people). But Israel still doubted his word and promises. Recounting this episode, Moses wrote in Deuteronomy,

All of you came to me and said, “Let us send men ahead of us to explore the land for us and bring back a report to us regarding the route by which we should go up and the cities we will come to.” The plan seemed good to me, and I selected twelve of you, one from each tribe.

Deuteronomy 1:22-23

It must be noted that the first part of the spies’ report upon returning from Canaan was great, 

“We came to the land to which you sent us; it flows with milk and honey, and this is its fruit. … They brought back a report to us, and said, “It is a good land that the LORD our God is giving us.”

Numbers 13:27 & Deuteronomy 1:25

However, then there was a “but,”

Yet the people who live in the land are strong, and the towns are fortified and very large; and besides, we saw the descendants of Anak there. … But you were unwilling to go up. You rebelled against the command of the LORD your God; you grumbled in your tents and said, “It is because the LORD hates us that he has brought us out of the land of Egypt, to hand us over to the Amorites to destroy us.”

Numbers 1:28 & Deuteronomy 1:26-27

Rav Pam (Rabbi Avraham Yaakov Pam ז״ל) in his commentary on Shelach lecha wisely stated, 

A person should always try to avoid putting himself into a situation of nisayon (temptation), where he will be confronted with the opportunity to sin.

(Rav Pam on Chumash, Brooklyn: Mesorah Publications, 2004, p 169.)

Going into the Land and checking out the situation was not the problem. Israel’s doubting the word and the character of HaShem to fulfill his promise was. Unfortunately, this lack to trust in HaShem’s promises would cause a generation to fall in the Wilderness without entering into the Promised Land. This should remind us that we need to guard our own walk with HaShem to prevent doubt from growing as we follow his leading. James addresses this concern to followers of Yeshua who seemed to be operating in doubt when he wrote the following warning, “…ask in faith, never doubting, for the one who doubts is like a wave of the sea, driven and tossed by the wind; for the doubter, being double-minded and unstable in every way, must not expect to receive anything from the Lord” (James 1:6-7).

As many of you know, one of my favorite Scriptures is from Rav Shual’s letter to the Corinthians, 

No testing (trial or temptation) has overtaken you that is not common to everyone. God is faithful, and he will not let you be tested beyond your strength, but with the testing he will also provide the way out so that you may be able to endure it.

1 Corinthians 10:13

Sometimes his provision leads in a circuitous direction, just as he took newly delivered Bnei Israel the long way around to Canaan so they would not run into the Philistines (Exodus 13:17). Other times, he allows us to draw on our inner strength, as he did Joseph when Potiphar’s wife confronted him. HaShem did not need to intervene, because Joseph fled the situation. Unfortunately, not all the examples in Scripture turn out positive. The spies not only doubted HaShem but convinced the people to doubt as well, which led to a generation dying in the wilderness. King David also succumbed to temptation when, instead of fleeing from Bat Sheba, he submitted to lust of his eyes and committed both adultery with her and then murdered her husband, which resulted in the death of his new-born son.

We, like Bnei Israel, always have a choice. We can trust in the word and promises of God and the leading of the Ruach (Spirit), or we can trust in our own strength and follow the distractions of our heart and eyes. First Corinthians 10:12 warns each of us “So if you think you are standing, watch out that you do not fall,” and the letter ends with these words of encouragement,

Keep alert, stand firm in your faith, be courageous, be strong.

1 Corinthians 16:13

Let this short phrase become a daily mantra as we walk out our journey together; all the time trusting that when we are weak, he will intervene—if we allow him to do so. 

* All Scripture readings are from New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.  

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In the beginning of this week’s parasha, Va’etchanan, Deuteronomy 3:23-7:11, Moses explains why he would not be taking Bnei Israel into the Promised Land after leading them for the last 40 years. It is interesting however, what Moses shares with the people and what was recorded in Numbers which we read a five Shabbats ago.

In Va’etchanan we read Moses’ perspective – “But ADONAI was angry with me because of you, so He would not listen to me” (Deuteronomy 3:26). But in Numbers 20:12, we read HaShem’s perspective – But ADONAI said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you did not trust in Me so as to esteem Me as holy in the eyes of Bnei-Yisrael, therefore you will not bring this assembly into the land that I have given to them.”

It has been said that perception is strongly affected by what one has experienced in the past and the expectations of what one might experience in the future, and how it’s compared to the specific situation. These factors of past experiences and future expectations are often used to explain how two or more people can experience the same incident yet remember it completely different. However, in this case, it is not two different people remembering the same incident, rather it is one person remembering an incident that would profoundly affect the conclusion of not only his forty plus year ministry but his very life.

Often memory can be a funny even deceptive thing. Let’s look back at the incident once again in Numbers 20:1-2, “In the first month, the entire community of Bnei-Yisrael arrived at the wilderness of Zin. … Now there was no water for the community, so they assembled against Moses and Aaron.” Remember Moses and Aaron had been leading Bnei Israel for almost four decades by this time. Almost all of the original people who left Egypt have now died in the wandering and have been replaced by their children and possibly grandchildren. If we were to go back and read the account of this almost four-decade relationship between Moses and Bnei Israel, one thing becomes abundantly clear, the people knew well how to grumble and complain when things did not go according to their wants and desires. A second thing they learned well was that grumbling and complaining against HaShem often brought judgement but grumbling and complaining against Moses and Aaron usually brought a satisfactory conclusion. Now, in the wilderness of Zin, water had either run low or become non-existent and instead of trusting in the provision of HaShem who has led them literally all their lives, they complained to Moses. Moses and Aaron’s immediate response was to fall on their faces before HaShem at the entrance to the Tabernacle, at which time he told them what to do (Numbers 20:7-8).

Pausing the narrative right there, one could assume at Moses and Aaron would rise up from HaShem’s presence, gather the people together, speak to the rock, thereby satisfying the needs of the people and their livestock. However, for some reason, that is not what happened. 

Moses and Aaron gathered the assembly in front of the rock. He said, “Listen now, you rebels! Must we bring you water from this rock?” Then Moses raised his arm and struck the rock twice with the staff. Water gushed out and the community and its livestock drank.

Numbers 20:10-11

Two things are immediately clear. First, Moses did not react to the crowd in the manner that HaShem required. After gathering them together, he upbraided the crowd, calling them rebels or disobedient ones, suggesting that they (the crowd of people) were depending on him to provide for them instead of trusting in HaShem. Then he struck the rock, twice, instead of speaking to it as commanded. It should be remembered, that though his actions and attitudes were contrary to HaShem’s command, water still appeared and the satisfied the needs of the people. The second thing that is often overlooked, is that Aaron was silent throughout the incident. He could have attempted to quiet or calm his brother, but he didn’t. Thus, Moses’s actions and Aaron’s silence brought swift discipline from HaShem.

But ADONAI said to Moses and Aaron, “Because you did not trust in Me so as to esteem Me as holy in the eyes of Bnei-Yisrael, therefore you will not bring this assembly into the land that I have given to them.”

Numbers 20:12

So, in this week’s reading, did Moses forget that he and Aaron were at fault as is stated in Numbers 20:12, or do we need to read Deuteronomy 3:26 differently. Certainly, the people carried part of the blame as their constant grumbling and complaining throughout the years of wandering surely had worn down Moses’ and Aaron’s ability to respond properly in the manner HaShem required. Plus, Moses’ and Aaron’s sister, Miriam, had just died, so they were probably still suffering the grief of her passing. But neither of these excuses justify their disobedience to the command of HaShem. 

In Yaacov’s letter to his community, it’s written,

Not many of you should become teachers, my brothers and sisters, since you know that we will receive a stricter judgment. For we all stumble in many ways. If someone does not stumble in speech, he is a perfect man (or woman)…

James 3:1-2

If this higher standard is true of teachers, how much more so it is true of leaders, whether they be secular or religious. Moses and Aaron had the responsibility of exhibiting their trust in HaShem and his word. They were to establish HaShem’s holiness in the eyes of the people – but they did not. So, while Moses could say to Bnei Israel, in all honesty, “ADONAI was angry with me because of you, because your constant complaining and grumbling wore me down,” he could not absolve himself of his own personal disobedience to the expressed word of HaShem.

Yaacov tempered his warning to teachers (and I believe leaders) that we all stumble, it is in our very nature to do so. However, he followed that tempering with “If someone does not stumble in speech, he is a perfect man.” Many he was remembering Yeshua’s words recorded by Matthew,

“But I tell you that on the Day of Judgment, men will give account for every careless word they speak. For by your words, you will be justified, and by your words you will be condemned.”

Matthew 12:36-37

Moses’ careless words, regardless of the reason they were said, kept him from entering the promise land with the people he had led for almost four decades. May it always be that we are justified by our words and not condemned by them.

* All Scripture references are from the Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.

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This week’s parasha, Balak, (Numbers 22:1 – 25:9) is not one of most popular readings in the yearly cycle. Balak son of Zippor, king of Moab along with the Midianites were quite concerned with Israel’s victory over King Sihon of the Amorites and King Og of Bashan. Consequently, Balak’s idea of counting the cost for further battles was to employ the services of Balaam son of Beor the premier sorcerer in the region. Balak’s message to Balaam was simple and to the point,

Come now, curse this people for me, since they are stronger than I; perhaps I shall be able to defeat them and drive them from the land; for I know that whomever you bless is blessed, and whomever you curse is cursed.

Numbers 22:6

Most know the outcome of the story. Try as he may and to the great disappointment of Balak, Balaam was not able to curse Israel. By his words, he stayed true to the command of HaShem,

Balaam said to Balak, “I have come to you now, but do I have power to say just anything? The word God puts in my mouth, that is what I must say.”

Numbers 22:38

Therefore, what was supposed to be curses, actually became blessings, one from Numbers 24:5-9 found its way into the Siddur (Jewish Prayer Book).

How fair are your tents, O Jacob, your encampments, O Israel!

Like palm-groves that stretch far away, like gardens beside a river,

like aloes that the LORD has planted,  like cedar trees beside the waters.

Water shall flow from his buckets, and his seed shall have abundant water,

his king shall be higher than Agag, and his kingdom shall be exalted.

God who brings him out of Egypt, is like the horns of a wild ox for him,

he shall devour the nations that are his foes and break their bones.

He shall strike with his arrows. He crouched, he lay down like a lion,

and like a lioness; who will rouse him up? 

Blessed is everyone who blesses you and cursed is everyone who curses you.”

Like the first three, the rest of Balaam’s oracles were equally displeasing to Balak, as they all spoke of coming judgements on the surrounding nations either at the hands of Israel or of foreign armies used by HaShem to execute judgement. Sadly, Balaam did not leave well enough alone. At the end of the parasha we read of Israel playing the harlot and Balaam’s involvement is noted later Parashat Matot.

While Israel was staying at Shittim, the people began to have sexual relations with the women of Moab. These invited the people to the sacrifices of their gods, and the people ate and bowed down to their gods. Thus, Israel yoked itself to the Baal of Peor, and the LORD’S anger was kindled against Israel. … These women here, on Balaam’s advice, made the Israelites act treacherously against the LORD in the affair of Peor, so that the plague came among the congregation of the LORD.

Numbers 25:1-3; 31:16

Instead of being remembered as the premier sorcerer who heard and followed the ways of HaShem, Balaam has gone down in history as an anathema. Peter wrote these words concerning those who knew the right way but chose to deviate from the ways of HaShem,

They have left the straight road and have gone astray, following the road of Balaam son of Beor, who loved the wages of doing wrong …

2 Peter 2:15, also see Jude 11

Balaam example proves that one must follow the ways of the LORD completely, not picking and choosing what one might wish to do. Balaam spoke the words that HaShem put in his mouth, but then Balaam proved that the plans of his heart were truly evil, and this brought about his downfall.

Rav Shaul affirmed this truth as he wrote to the Yeshua-believers in Galatia.

Do not be deceived; God is not mocked, for you reap whatever you sow. If you sow to your own flesh, you will reap corruption from the flesh; but if you sow to the Spirit, you will reap eternal life from the Spirit. So let us not grow weary in doing what is right, for we will reap at harvest-time, if we do not give up.

Galatians 6:7-9

Let commit this week and forever more to follow Solomon’s advice to “trust in the LORD with all our heart, and do not rely on our own insight.” (Proverbs 3:5)

* All Scripture readings are from New Revised Standard Version of the Bible, copyright 1989 by the Division of Christian Education of the National Council of the Churches of Christ in the United States of America.  

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This week’s parasha, Chukat (“statute”), is found in Numbers 19:1-22:1. Among the various items covered in this week’s reading are Moses’ and Aaron’s rebellious activity which led to their inability to enter into Canaan—the land promised to the patriarchs, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob—and the deaths of Miriam and of Aaron, which brought about the elevation of Eleazar, Aaron’s son to the position of Kohen HaGadol (High Priest). One of the most notable events covered in this week’s parasha is the enigmatic purification ritual for a person contaminated though contact with a corpse. The ritual is performed with water and the ashes of the Red Heifer (Numbers 19:1-20). I use the word enigmaticbecause this ritual is much like that of the potentially unfaithful wife which uses a mixture of holy water and dust from the floor of the Mishkan (Tabernacle; Numbers 5:11-28). 

According to Jewish tradition there are 613 commands or mitzvot in the Torah: 248 positive ones, mitzvot aseh, things that Jews should do, and 365 negative ones, mitzvot lo ta’aseh, things that Jews should not do. However, for this week’s Thoughts, another division of mitzvot need to be considered, that is mishpatim, those mitzvot that can be understood, or that one might say are rational. The Ten Commandments are a good representation of rational mitzvot. There are also chukim, those mitzvot that are not immediately, if ever, understood or appear rational. The laws of kashrut, the clean and unclean animals that are allowed to be consumed fall into this category, as do the two rituals briefly mentioned above. All of this leads to the question of the week, does a mitzva (command) have to be rational or even understood to be obeyed?

Rav Shaul in his letter to Timothy wrote, 

All Scripture is inspired by God and useful for teaching, for reproof, for restoration, and for training in righteousness, so that the person belonging to God may be capable, fully equipped for every good deed.

2 Timothy 3:16-17

It would be wise to note that he did not say that all Scripture was understandable or even rational, but that it was useful for teaching, for reproof, for restoration, and for training in righteousness. In preparation for this Torah portion, I found the following relevant and informative observation,

Human understanding is, and will always be, fallible. In order for us to know what’s best to do, we need to have God direct us. When God’s perfect judgment conflicts with our own, the rational conclusion is that our judgment is wrong and the best thing is to follow God’s judgment instead. 

https://www.rationalchristianity.net/obey.html

In light of this observation, the compiler of Proverbs gives these words of encouragement and warning,

Trust in ADONAI with all your heart, lean not on your own understanding. In all your ways acknowledge Him, and He will make your paths straight. … There is a way that seems right to a man, but its end is the way to death.

Proverbs 3:5-6 & 16:18

I am not suggesting that as followers of Yeshua we “check our brains at the door” and blindly follow the Scriptures without thought or consideration. Earlier in in his letter to Timothy, Rav Shaul wrote,

Make every effort to present yourself before God as tried and true, as an unashamed worker cutting a straight path with the word of truth.

2 Timothy 2:15

Timothy, as well as the rest of us, was admonished to study the Scriptures and learn how to apply them to our daily lives. However, there may well be times when logic, common sense, and even rational thought would seem to run contrary to the written Scripture. Moses provided what could be considered an escape clause for this type of situation when he wrote,

The secret things belong to ADONAI our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our children forever—in order to do all the words of this Torah.

Deuteronomy 29:28 (:29)

In conclusion, there are or will be things in Scripture that remain a secret to us, things that HaShem chooses not to reveal or justify his reasoning. There will be things that remain enigmatic no matter how we look at them or try to explain them. Rav Shaul, in his letter to the Romans wrote,

O the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How unsearchable are His judgments and how incomprehensible His ways! For “who has known the mind of ADONAI, or who has been His counselor?”

Romans 11:33-34

We are not required to understand everything, but we are to have faith in HaShem and his word, as it is written, “…without faith it is impossible to please God” (Hebrew 11:6).

* All Scripture references are from the Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.

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This week’s parasha us Korach, Numbers 16:1-18:32 begins with a Moses’ uncle, Korach (or Korah in English) challenging Moses for his leadership position in regard to Bnei Israel. It is very easy, even quite natural to blame Korach for his attempted coup of Moses’ leadership, his bid to seize power and authority that was not given him. 

“You’ve gone too far! All the community is holy—all of them—and ADONAI is with them! Then why do you exalt yourselves above the assembly of ADONAI?”

Numbers 16:3

Rabbi Sacks, z”l, began his commentary on this parasha by asking “What exactly was wrong in what Korach and his motley band of fellow agitators said?” (https://rabbisacks.org/korach-5781/) Though he set the stage by asking what was wrong with Korach’s accusations against Moses, I am somewhat concerned about his negative description of those he gathered around himself. Granted, before challenging Moses, Korach (himself a Levite) in essence, counted the cost and apparently strengthened his position before he challenged Moses. 

Now Korah, son of Izhar son of Kohath son of Levi, and sons of Reuben—Dathan and Abiram, sons of Eliab, and On son of Peleth—rose up against Moses and took 250 men from Bnei-Yisrael, men of renown who had been appointed to the council. They assembled against Moses and Aaron.

Numbers 16:1-3

Also, keep in mind that Korach and his clan already had been given a great responsibility by HaShem.

They were responsible for the Ark, the table, the menorah, the altars, and the implements of the Sanctuary used in service with them, the curtain and all involved with its use.

Numbers 3:31-32

So Korach had an established position in hierarchy of his clan and must have been an impressive leader to have been able to gather 250 men of renown and leaders in their own rights (see Numbers 1:16). These council leaders chosen by their clans and appointed to assist Moses in leading and judging Bnei Israel were swayed by the enticing words of Korach. Consider for a moment the census count in Numbers 1:46, the total men counted was 603,550, which means that Korach’s coup was populated by 0.04% of the census count.

In the end, the HaShem judged the rebellion, Korah, Dathan, and Abiram and their families lost their lives, “…they with all that belonged to them went down alive into Sheol; the earth closed over them, and they perished from the midst of the assembly” (Numbers 16:33). As for 250 men of renown “…fire came out from the LORD and consumed the two hundred fifty men offering the incense” (Numbers 16:35). But sadly, though this was the end of Korach and those he gathered to assist in his rebellion, things did not return to normal. The next day a general revolt arose against Moses and Aaron, by people who felt that HaShem’s judgement was too harsh, blaming Moses and Aaron for HaShem’s actions, “You have killed the people of the LORD” (Numbers 16:41). HaShem judged this rebellion as well and in the end, “Those who died by the plague were fourteen thousand seven hundred, besides those who died in the affair of Korah” (Numbers 16:49). Thus 2.45% of the total census died due to a rebellion started by 0.04%.

When I was studying this parasha, I was reminded of another rebellion in the making against the plans of HaShem. Recorded in the book of Acts is the account of the Sanhedrin attempted to censure Yeshua’s disciples, forbidding them to propagate the teachings of their risen Lord.

But a Pharisee in the council named Gamaliel, a teacher of the law, respected by all the people, stood up and ordered the men to be put outside for a short time. Then he said to them, “Fellow Israelites, consider carefully what you propose to do to these men. For some time ago Theudas rose up, claiming to be somebody, and a number of men, about four hundred, joined him; but he was killed, and all who followed him were dispersed and disappeared. After him Judas the Galilean rose up at the time of the census and got people to follow him; he also perished, and all who followed him were scattered. So in the present case, I tell you, keep away from these men and let them alone; because if this plan or this undertaking is of human origin, it will fail; but if it is of God, you will not be able to overthrow them—in that case you may even be found fighting against God!”

Acts 5:34-39

In a manner, the Sanhedrin’s actions were traveling the same path as Korach. At Shavuot, HaShem empowered the nascent ecclesia to proclaim the kingdom of God and the messiahship of Yeshua to the world. In their rejection of Yeshua, most of the members of the Sanhedrin “became enraged and wanted to kill them (the disciples)” (Acts 5:33). But as it is written, Rabbi Gamaliel tempered their response reminding those gathered that they did not want to be found fighting against God.

We find ourselves in a similar situation today. In the last year political tensions have risen to a feverous pitch, turning brother against brother as well as sister against sister over ideological platforms that have almost taken on sacred significance. Each side thinks, knows with great assurance that the other is wrong, claiming in so many words that the other has “gone too far!” Zealots have taken to the streets, each sure their cause, their platform is correct. In the end, we are not seeing shalom, but chaos. In fact, the cacophony of accusations, even when some of the accusations are valid, are so chaotic that many do not even know what or how to pray to find the way back to the light. Many of the voices striving for our attention are not motivated by the needs or the good of the people of the advancement of the kingdom of God, rather they are motivated, like Korach, by self-interest and self-advancement.

In the days and weeks ahead, I suggest that we concentrate a little less on the chaos around us while focusing a little more on these three passages of Scripture. The first one because it tells us what HaShem expects, the second because it reminds us of who we are and how we should act, and the third because we often just do not know how to pray.

He has told you, humanity, what is good, and what ADONAI is seeking from you: only to practice justice, to love mercy, and to walk humbly with your God.

Micah 6:8

“By this all will know that you are My disciples, if you have love for one another.”

John 13:35

“Therefore, pray in this way: ‘Our Father in heaven, sanctified be Your name. Your kingdom come, Your will be done on earth as it is in heaven.”

Matthew 6:9-10

* All Scripture references are from the Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.

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Parashat Nasso, Numbers 4:21-7:89, is almost always read on the Shabbat immediately following Shavuot. I find this interesting in that at Shavuot that traditionally we remember the giving of the Torah at Sinai along with Israel’s acceptance of the covenant with the words “All that ADONAI has spoken; we will do and obey” (Exodus 24:7). As followers of Yeshua, we also remember the reception of the empowering of the Ruach promised by Yeshua (see John 14:26), which according to Luke’s account occurred on Shavuot.

When the day of Shavuot had come, they were all together in one place. Suddenly there came from heaven a sound like a mighty rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. And tongues like fire spreading out appeared to them and settled on each one of them. They were all filled with the Ruach ha-Kodesh and began to speak in other tongues as the Ruach enabled them to speak out.

Acts 2:1-4)

So, what is it about Nasso’s reading immediately following Shavuot that I find intriguing? There are two reasons. First, the acceptance of the Torah and Hashem’s covenant in a sense, made all of Bnei Israel a type of Nazarite, (Numbers 6:1ff). I say type, because while not abstaining from wine, strong drink, and haircuts (Numbers 6:3-5) they did, in fact make a vow “to be separate for ADONAI” (Numbers 6:2). 

The second reason is also found in chapter 6, this time at the end of the chapter, and that is the so-called Aaronic Benediction. 

ADONAI bless you and keep you!
ADONAI make His face to shine on you and be gracious to you!
ADONAI turn His face toward you and grant you shalom!

Numbers 6:24-26

Nechama Leibowitz, introduces her commentary on this passage by stating

The priestly benedictions are familiar to every Jew who visits the synagogue, so familiar indeed that we are perhaps inclined to forget their true content and fail to appreciate their profound significance.

Studies in Bamidbar, Nechama Leibowitz, p. 60.

Not only are these benedictions well known to most Jews, regardless of their affiliation, the same could be said about most Yeshua-followers as these three lines serve as a closing prayer in many services. What is the significance to this well-known benediction that Leibowitz fears that we miss due to familiarity? The first significance may well be their implied meaning. It is suggested that “ADONAI bless you and keep you” refers to material or physical care and protection. The second, “ADONAI make His face to shine on you and be gracious to you” refers to the HaShem taking care of one’s spiritual needs. And third, “ADONAI turn His face toward you and grant you shalom” refers to the HaShem’s ultimate favor, the granting of shalom. This third aspect of HaShem’s care is often misunderstood if we read shalom as “peace” which is the common English translation. However, “peace” is but a small nuance of the depth of “shalom.” In most Bible dictionaries or Hebrew lexicons, one finds shalom does carry the idea of peace, but much more than that. There is the concept of safety and security, of prosperity and well-being. There is an overriding sense of wholeness, completeness, a state or feeling of satisfaction, and contentment. Therefore, peace is not the absence of strife or chaos, rather shalom is the assurance that even in the strife and chaos, HaShem’s presence, comfort and care are there for us to access – to see us through to the other side of whatever we are facing or walking through. It is the shalom that HaShem gives that allowed the psalmist to write, 

Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil, for You are with me: Your rod and Your staff comfort me.

Psalm 23:4

There is another aspect of the “Aaronic Benediction” of which we need to be reminded. “Aaronic Benediction” is a bit of a misnomer. In the synagogue, when the benediction is recited, toward the end of the Amidah, it is introduced with these words,

Our God, and the God of our fathers, bless us with the threefold blessing in the Torah, written by the hand of Moses Your servant and pronounced by Aaron and his sons the priests, Your holy people, as it is said:

Koren Heb/Eng Siddur, Jonathan Sacks, p.132.

This introduction elucidates the misnomer of calling it the “Aaronic Benediction.” Aaron and his descendants did not pronounce their blessing over Israel, they reiterated HaShem’s blessing. Here is the preamble and postscript to the benediction.

Again, ADONAI spoke to Moses saying, “Speak to Aaron and to his sons saying: Thus, you are to bless Bnei-Yisrael, by saying to them: … In this way they are to place My Name over Bnei-Yisrael, and so I will bless them.”

Numbers 6:22-23 & 27

It was and remains the words of HaShem, his blessing and his very name that was bestowed upon Israel via the office of the Aaronic priesthood. Thus, contrary to popular opinion and tradition, it is not the Aaronic Benediction but HaShem’s Benediction that is pronounced over the people of God, whether it be in the synagogue or in Yeshua-believing fellowships and communities. 

Furthermore, I suggest that it is this three-fold benediction also is a reminder of the Shavuot experience described in the book of Acts. The empowering presence of the Ruach ha-Kodesh is a tangible expression of the power and presence of HaShem with his people as promised by Yeshua. If there is any doubt of this, consider these words from Yeshua to his talmidim, as he promised them

Shalom I leave you, my shalom I give to you; but not as the world gives! Do not let your heart be troubled or afraid.”

John 14:27

So, as we enter into the Sabbath this weekend, may each of us truly be aware of the care and concern and provision that HaShem has for each of us and in that awareness, let us truly rest in His shalom.

* All Scripture references are from the Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.

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This Shabbat we begin the fourth book of the Torah of Moses, Bamidbar, which is also the name of the weekly reading, Numbers 1:1-4:20. There is quite a difference in the book’s name in Hebrew and in English. Bamidbar, the fifth word in the first verse, literally means in the wilderness, which is Israel’s condition for the next 37 plus years. The rabbis called the fourth book Chumash HaPekudim (חומש הפקודים), the Book of Counting (Yoma 3a; Sota 36b). It has been suggested, with good reason, that the English title Numbers and the rabbis’ Chumash HaPekudim is based on the two censuses recorded in the book; the first one is in this week’s parasha and the second in parashat Pinchas, Numbers 26.

As a book, Bamidbar spans approximately thirty-seven years, beginning “the first of the second month of the second year” (Numbers 1:1) and ending as Bnei Israel prepares to enter into the land promised to the patriarchs. Bamidbar is framed by the two censuses; the first occurs after the construction and dedication of the Mishkan, as B’nei Israel start out on their journey to the Promised Land, (Numbers 1:1—4) and the second in the final year of their travels in the Wilderness as they begin preparations to enter the Promised Land (Numbers 26:1-4). It is noteworthy that both censuses counted males “20 years and upward available to serve in the army of Israel” (Numbers 1:3 & 26:2). While it is true that Bnei Israel was learning to trust HaShem to care and protect them, it was and also remains true that HaShem expected Israel, and us, to do their/our part as well. The journey through the Wilderness as well as the conquest of Canaan would require determination and occasional battles to secure the victory. There would be times when HaShem would intervene miraculously and other times when he would allow Israel to fight their own battles, thereby learning to stand on their own.

In addition to the similarities, one major difference exists between the two censuses. In the first census, the Levites were not counted—“Definitely you are not to number the tribe of Levi, nor take the sum of them among Bnei-Yisrael” (Numbers 1:49). However, in the second census, chapter 26, the tribe of Levite were counted.

In his commentary on the Chumash, Rabbi Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz ז״ל  explains that the Levites were not included in the first census because they were not to “serve in the army and … not [to] conquer nor inherit any portion of the land.” (Adin Even-Israel Steinsaltz. The Steinsaltz Humash. Jerusalem, Koren Publishers, 2018, p 734). Their duties lay elsewhere. 

Instead, you are to appoint the Levites over the Tabernacle of the Testimony, over all its implements and all pertaining to it. They are to carry the Tabernacle and all its utensils, tend to it and camp around it. … The Levites are to camp around the Tabernacle of the Testimony, so that there will be no wrath unleashed on the community of Bnei-Yisrael. So, the Levites are to maintain care of the Tabernacle of the Testimony.

Numbers 1:50 & 53

Two specific duties are mentioned in these verses: first, the Levites’ primary concern was the care, maintenance and service of the Mishkan (vs 50); second, they were to serve as a protective shield, keeping the other 11 tribes from encroaching upon the sanctity of Mishkan, whether intentionally or unintentionally. Such protection prevented the wrath of HaShem from being “unleashed on the community.” The utmost importance of this second duty is exemplified in Parashat Shemini, which we read a few weeks ago. Parashat Shemini records the account of the exploits and death of Nadab and Abihu, Aaron’s sons, who offered strange or unauthorized fire on the altar and were immediately struck dead for the infraction (Leviticus 10:1). Whether their zeal was intentional or unintentional, the result of the action was the same—death. In the Haftarah for Shemini, we read the account of the death of Uzzah, a non-Levite, who reached out to steady the Ark when the oxen drawing the cart that held the Ark stumbled (2 Samuel 6:6-7).

These two examples stress the importance of the Levites being properly versed and trained in their duties concerning the care, ritual activities, and transport of the Mishkan. They served as a buffer or a shield to protect the rest of the Israel from approaching the presence of HaShem in an unworthy or defiled manner. When the Levites did not perform their duties in the proper manner, such as seen with Nadab and Abihu and Uzzah, horrific results were often swift and decisive. 

What application might we draw today from the Levites role as a buffer or shield? Consider Yeshua’s words to his talmidim, which I quoted last week,

I will ask the Father, and He will give you another Helper so He may be with you forever. … But the Helper, the Ruach ha-Kodesh whom the Father will send in My name, will teach you everything and remind you of everything that I said to you.”

John 14:16, 26

As the Levites served as a buffer to protect the rest Israel from improperly approaching the Mishkan and by extension the presence of HaShem, so the Ruach ha-Kodesh works in the same manner, teaching and reminding each of us of Yeshua’s teaching when he walked among us and the whole counsel of God as revealed in the Scriptures. Equally, as the Israelites had no excuse if they skirted the Levitical protection, we, as followers of Yeshua who are filled with the promised Ruach, have no excuse when we suffer the consequences brought about by our actions that are contrary to the revealed word of God. Each of the two censuses in Bamidbar carried the idea of making preparations, both numbering men for future battles and identifying the Levites as a buffer. In Luke 14:31, Yeshua echoes the same sentiment in parable concerning the king who would go to war but first needed to count the cost. This reminds us to think about our actions and to count the costs before rushing in like fools “where angels fear to tread” (Alexander Pope, “An Essay on Criticism,” 1711).

* All Scripture references are from the Tree of Life (TLV) Translation of the Bible. Copyright © 2015 by The Messianic Jewish Family Bible Society.

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